4U Economics
Course Overview

Course Description:

4U Economics introduces students to a large body of economic theory which examines the mechanics of a modified free-market system - such as is found within Canada. Students explore how our society utilizes its limited resources to provide for our unlimited needs and wants. At the completion of the course, students should understand how individuals, acting as both consumers and producers, affect the economy at large. In addition, the government's role as both economic policy-maker and enforcer, as well as economic stabilizer, will be examined. Finally, students will come to understand how the Canadian economy interacts with other national economies within a global context.


Microeconomics: Canada in the Global Environment, 8th Edition, by M. Parkin & R. Bade.

Macroeconomics: Canada in the Global Environment, 8th Edition, by M. Parkin & R. Bade.

For students who may wish to challenge themselves with the AP exam:

5 Steps to a 5: AP Microeconomics/Macroeconomics, by Eric Dodge, 2005. ISBN#0-07-143712-6



Course Web Site:


Units and Topics Covered:

Term #1

1) Introduction to Economics:

2) Measurement and Evaluation of Economic Activity:

3) The Goal of Economic Stability - Fiscal Policy:

4) The Goal of Economic Stability - Monetary Policy:

Term #2

5) The Goal of Economic Efficiency:

9) Application of Economic Reasoning.

Economic Seminars - Current Issues In Economics:

Term 3

6) The Goal of Economic Equity - Income Determination:

7) The Goal of Economic Growth & Productivity:

8) International Trade & Competitiveness:

Mark Breakdown:

See the term's summative mark profile.

Assessment Styles:

Three Styles of Assessment
Assessment Styles

Assessment FOR Learning:

Assessment that is intended to provide students the opportunity to apply their learning. This assessment is formative in nature: providing both the student and the teacher with insight into the learning that is taking place. This assessment does not count toward the student's grade.

Goal(s): To allow students to practice skills and apply knowledge, and to guide the next steps for intstruction and learning.

Examples: formative quizzes, exercises, and presentations.

Assessment AS Learning:

Assessment that is intended to provide students the opportunity to reflect upon their learning. This assessment is formative in nature: providing both the student and the teacher with insight into the student's own reflection upon his/her learning. This assessment does not count toward the student's grade.

Goal(s): To develop student metacognition. In other words, to give students insight into their own thinking and learning and to help students develop and refine strategies to use in future learning.

Examples: reflective journals, exit cards.

Assessment OF Learning:

Assessment that is intended to depict a student's level of achievment at a given point in time. This assessment is summative in nature, and thus will count toward the student's grade.

Goal(s): To provide the student with a mark that will inform the student and other interested parties of the student's relative achievment with respect to the course curriculum.

Examples: summative quizzes, tests, essays, reports, labs, and presentations.

Testing Philosophy:

Bear in mind that any test in this course will attempt to evaluate the student's understanding of the topics and issues within a given unit. Although memorization of any facts or details involved will often be essential for a correct answer, memorization is not all that is required. Questions are not often designed to allow the student to recite a class note in the appropriate place, but rather to apply the knowledge contained within a note in a new and often abstract manner.

A student's opinion on a topic or issue will be given due consideration, but will be considered of little value if it is not supported by fact. Opinions are expected to take the information learned within the course into consideration - not to replace this information.

Furthermore, the course instructor will not assume any understanding, guess any meaning, or extrapolate any points which are not clearly stated within a student's answer.

Finally, an answer which contains any particular word or phrase which, by way of coincidence, is a word or phrase associated with the correct answer will not automatically receive a mark. Answers are graded by the virtue of their meaning - not by the vocabulary they may contain.

Course Policies and Guidelines:

Assignments and Projects:

1. a) All assignments are due by the beginning of class on the assigned day. Assignments received after this time will be considered late.

1. b) Emailed assignments are not accepted or acknowledged. Obviously I am an advocate for the use of I.T. in education. However, I have been forced to adopt this policy for the following reasons:

Penalties for Late and Missed Assignments (Taken from the HTS Academic Policy)

1. c) Teachers will establish and communicate clearly established due dates with students.
Students are expected to submit all work in their courses. Submitting assignments late or
missing assignments results in students providing insufficient evidence for evaluation. This
has a direct impact on how teachers report on student achievement. Furthermore, academic
penalties will gradually increase with the frequency of occurrence and time taken by students
to meet their deadlines.

Late or missed assignments may occur for a number of legitimate reasons, including
extenuating circumstances, such as illness, accident or family issues. Upon the student’s
return to school they must follow up with their teachers to discuss the issue so that the
teacher may outline the appropriate steps forward. In these cases (reviewed on an individual
basis) teachers may apply their professional judgement and provide additional time, an
alternative assignment or they may waive the penalty if that is what is deemed as the most
appropriate for that student at that time/context. (See extension application below.)

***Please note: This is a school policy, and as such it will be applied without prejudice to all late assignments.

2) If circumstances beyond a student's ability to control will prevent the student from completing an assignment by the specified due date, then the student is invited to complete and submit an extension application for approval by the course instructor. This form must be submitted at least four school days in advance of the due date. Completing and submitting this application is the only accepted means of obtaining an extension in this course.

Students should note that an extension application must be sponsored by an individual who can corroborate the student's need for an extension. For example, a health issue should be sponsored by a physician or guardian. The sponsor's name, signature, and phone number must be provided. It should also be noted that an extension is not considered to be in force until such time as the application form has been completed, submitted, and approved by the course instructor.

3) All work must be neat and accurate, typing or word processing of major assignments is strongly encouraged.

4) a) All borrowed information must be properly documented using an accepted procedure, i.e. footnoting, endnoting, etc. Plagiarism is an offence and will result in an automatic grade of zero for the assignment.

5) b) Any work that is copied from another student and presented as one's own will be considered to be a case of plagiarism, and as such the assignment in question will receive a grade of zero.

6) Spelling and grammar will be figured into the grade of every written assignment (up to a maximum of 20% of the mark). There is no substitute for a well written paper.

Tests and Exams:

7) a. All students are expected to write tests on the set date. If a student must miss a test day, then the onus is placed on the student to let me know well in advance, and to arrange for an alternate time to take the test.

7) b. Fair Word of Warning: In the case of a rewrite, students are cautioned to not assume that their test will be the same as the test given out on the original test date. Contrary to popular belief, students who write tests at later dates often end up doing worse than usual. I believe this happens because students who write late cannot help but hear about the questions that were on the test, and then they naturally focus on preparing for those particular questions. These students can at times be devastated to find that the questions on the later test are different than the questions that were on the original test.

8) If the student misses a test day without letting me know in advance, then only a doctor's note can allow the student to make up the test.

9) If the student misses a test and yet is found to be in attendance on the day in question, an automatic zero will be awarded for the test mark.

10) If the student is found to have cheated on a test, an automatic zero will be awarded for the test mark.

Class Routine and Work Ethic:

11) Students are expected to be in class and ready to work by the beginning of the period.

12) Classes will proceed in the order indicated on the term outlines. Students are responsible to check off the classes as they are completed and to always be mindful of the objectives and requirements associated with the next class. Students are expected to complete any required reading and print off any handouts for a given class BEFORE that class - not during, and certainly not after.

13) Speaking or causing a distraction while the teacher or a student is addressing the class is not permitted. Such behaviour will compromise a student's participation mark which is valued at 10% of any given term.

14) Participation in class activities and discussions is strongly encouraged.

Assessment and Evaluation:

Professional judgement, as defined in Growing Success (2010) is “judgement that is informed by professional knowledge of curriculum expectations, context, evidence of learning, methods of instruction and assessment, and the criteria and standards that indicate success in student learning. In professional practice, judgement involves a purposeful and systematic thinking process that evolves in terms of accuracy and insight with ongoing reflection, self-correction and consideration all evidence collected (formative and summative) relating to a student’s learning. (pg. 152).

CIA4U Specific Expectations from the Curriculum Guidelines:

A1. Economic Inquiry

Throughout this course, students will:

A1.1 formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into current national and global economic issues (e.g., factual questions: What type of economic system does Sweden have?; comparative questions: How do the Human Development Index and gross domestic product of Canada compare to those of countries with emerging economies?; causal questions: What factors affect supply and demand?)

A1.2 select and organize relevant data, evidence, and information on current Canadian and international economic issues from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary: data from Statistics Canada or international statistical agencies, forecasts from international financial institutions, government budgets, treatises by economists; secondary: articles; business reports; documentaries or other films; newspapers; websites of governments, businesses, and/or non-governmental organizations), ensuring that their sources reflect a range of perspectives

A1.3 assess the credibility of sources, data, evidence, and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering how the data or information was constructed; the accuracy and/or context of the evidence; the intended audience; the bias, purpose, values, and/or expertise of the author)

A1.4 interpret and analyze data, evidence, and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for economic inquiry (e.g., interpret data in a graph on the economic impact of a government policy; interpret the information on income inequality presented in a Lorenz curve; use a Venn diagram or other graphic organizer to help them compare two different economic theories; analyze data to test a particular economic theory)

A1.5 use the concepts of economic thinking (i.e., economic significance, cause and effect, stability and variability, and economic perspective) when analyzing and evaluating data, evidence, and information and formulating conclusions and/or judgements about current Canadian and international economic issues (e.g., use the concept of economic significance to help them determine the impact of government spending on individuals and/or businesses; take the concept of cause and effect into consideration when analyzing supply and demand in relation to non-renewable natural resources; apply the concept of stability and variability when analyzing changes to the global balance of economic power; use the concept of economic perspective when analyzing the costs and benefits of a trade agreement to ensure that they consider how the agreement has affected different groups)

A1.6 evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements and/or predictions about the economic issues they are investigating

A1.7 communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a report, including tables and graphs, on the economic impact of globalization; a persuasive essay on ways to address global economic disparities; a presentation on trends in international trade; a seminar on issues associated with macroeconomic indicators; a debate on the value of different economic theories; a web page on the costs of black and grey markets; a blog discussing global environmental issues associated with economic development)

A1.8 use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes or endnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, credits) to reference different types of sources (e.g., articles, blogs, books, films, online documents, statistical reports, tables and graphs, websites)

A1.9 use appropriate terminology when com.municating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their inquiry topics; terminology related to economics and the concepts of economic thinking)

A2. Developing Transferable Skills

Throughout this course, students will:

A2.1 describe ways in which economic investiga.tions can help them develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., reading texts, writing, document use, computer use, oral communication, numeracy skills) and skills related to financial literacy, that can be transferred to postsecondary opportunities, the world of work, and everyday life

A2.2 apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through economic investigations (e.g., use skills related to budgeting, or weighing opportunity costs, to help them make responsible financial decisions; analyze trade-offs to make informed consumer decisions; analyze the meaning of statistics in a news report; apply work habits such as collaboration to help them deal with conflict and build consensus, or self-regulation to monitor their progress towards a particular financial goal)

A2.3 apply the concepts of economic thinking when analyzing current events involving economic issues (e.g., the release of a new report on inequitable distribution of wealth in the world or on child labour; demonstrations in support of First Nations land claims; a major accident at a sweatshop in the developing world; a new trade agreement that concerns Canada; a new political conflict with potential economic impact; changes to government policy regarding carbon emissions) in order to enhance their understanding of these events and their role as informed citizens

A2.4 identify various careers in which in which the skills learned in economics might be useful (e.g., accountant, banker, economist, educator, entrepreneur, financial consultant, fundraiser, human resources manager, journalist, lawyer, policy analyst, politician)


B1. Scarcity and Choice FOCUS ON: Economic Significance; Stability and Variability

By the end of this course, students will:

B1.1 compare, with reference to specific countries, how different economic systems (i.e., market, mixed, traditional, command) answer the three fundamental economic questions about production (i.e., what, how, and for whom to produce)

B1.2 explain, using both normative and positive economic analysis, the interrelationship between needs/wants, production decisions, and consumer choices and decisions

B1.3 demonstrate an understanding of production possibilities curves (PPCs) and how they can be used to guide economic decisions about the allocation of scarce resources (e.g., decisions about how to achieve full employment; trade-offs with respect to the production of consumer goods and capital goods; whether to invest in new technology, given its likely impact on production)

B1.4 explain how the concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs influence economic decisions, at both the personal and societal levels (e.g., the opportunity costs of going to university or college or of entering the workforce after high school; the allocation of limited government resources to infrastructure, education, or health care)

B1.5 explain the costs and benefits of some individual financial choices (e.g., saving for the future or spending money now, getting a student line of credit or a student loan, enrolling in postsecondary education or taking employment, renting or buying a home)

B2. Supply and Demand Models FOCUS ON: Cause and Effect; Stability and Variability

By the end of this course, students will:

B2.1 demonstrate an understanding of models of supply and demand, including price elasticity, and apply these models to analyze selected economic decisions

B2.2 explain how various factors, including taxation, affect supply and demand (e.g., technology, advertising, weather, shortages of raw materials or labour, price, land transfer tax, sales and/or goods and services taxes)

B2.3 use supply and demand models to analyze consumer decision making (e.g., how effective marketing or a change in the price of a product can affect consumer demand; how scarcity in the supply of a product can enhance the status associated with ownership; how the number and type of alternative products available can affect consumers’ decisions)

B3. Growth and Sustainability (FOCUS ON: Cause and Effect; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

B3.1 describe the factors of production (i.e., labour, capital, land, entrepreneurship), and analyze the implications of the scarcity of these factors for sustainable development

B3.2 analyze issues associated with the efficient use of the factors of production and the relationship between efficiency, growth, and sustainability (e.g., how the relocation of manufacturing from Canada to China to maximize efficient use of capital has affected workers in Canada and the environment in China; how economies of scale associated with mass production can result in lower prices for consumers but put pressure on small producers)

B3.3 assess the benefits and costs, including the environmental costs, of economic growth (e.g., with reference to job creation, loss of jobs as a result of relocation offshore or technological changes, increase in gross domestic product [GDP], technological innovation, new products, increasing consumerism, corporate consolidation and growth of multinational corporations, overfishing, deforestation, air and water pollution, climate change)

B3.4 explain the concepts of negative and positive externalities, and apply these concepts when analyzing the third-party costs and benefits of various policies, including those intended to enhance environmental sustainability

B4. Economic Thought and Decision Making (FOCUS ON: Economic Significance; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

B4.1 explain the key ideas of a variety of prominent economic theorists (e.g., Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, Henry George, John Maynard Keynes, John K. Galbraith, Deirdre McCloskey, Mahbub ul Haq, Marilyn Waring, Paul Romer, Judith Maxwell, Thomas Piketty, Thomas Sowell, Elinor Ostrom, Dambisa Moyo), and assess the extent to which they influence current economic thought

B4.2 explain how governments with different political perspectives (e.g., fascist, neoliberal, socialist, communist) respond to economic challenges, including the allocation of limited resources among competing interests

B4.3 analyze ways in which sociocultural factors (e.g., class, gender, ethnicity, age, education, beliefs and values, the media) and the influence of political-economic stakeholders (e.g., firms, lobby groups, think tanks, unions, interest groups) affect economic decisions


By the end of this course, students will:

C1. The Firm and Market Structures (FOCUS ON: Cause and Effect; Stability and Variability)

By the end of this course, students will:

C1.1 explain the main similarities and differences between various types of firms (e.g., sole proprietorships, private limited companies, partnerships, cooperatives, Crown corporations, multinational corporations, not-for-profit companies)

C1.2 describe various types of market structures (e.g., monopoly, perfect competition, oligopoly, monopolistic competition) and assess their advantages and disadvantages for different stakeholders

C1.3 analyze how new technology has affected markets and consumers (e.g., with reference to e-tail, e-commerce payment systems, planned obsolescence of electronics, consumers’ digital footprints and concerns about privacy, availability of information on companies and products on the Internet)

C1.4 explain ways in which businesses are regulated in different countries (e.g., regulations against insider trading, fraudulent practices, discriminatory hiring practices; environmental, labelling and signage, accessibility, health and safety regulations; minimum wages; working conditions; antitrust legislation; marketing boards), and assess the impact of this regulation on businesses, markets, workers, and consumers

C1.5 describe changes in the economic influence of markets and the public sector in Canada, and assess the impact of these changes (e.g., with references to changes in the availability of public services, deregulation, privatization of some services and/or Crown corporations)

C1.6 analyze, from the perspectives of individuals, firms, and governments, the trade-offs associated with economic activity in grey and black markets (e.g., illegal downloading and other types of copy.right infringement, tax evasion, unreported work or work done by undocumented workers)

C2. Economic Trade-offs and Decisions (FOCUS ON: Economic Significance; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of economic trade-offs (e.g., whether to buy a car or a transit pass, to rent an apartment or buy a house, to send a child from an impoverished family to school or to work, to pay down government debt or increase government spending on infrastructure or social services), and explain their significance for individuals and society

C2.2 analyze how different stakeholders view the trade-off between economic growth and concerns for the environment (e.g., with reference to coal-fired electrical plants to support manufacturing in China and concerns about air quality; debates about the economic and environmental impact of the North American energy pipelines and/or the continuing development of the Alberta oil sands; the expansion of farmland at the expense of rain forest; innovations such as genetically modified seeds/foods and their impact on eco.systems; firms that invest in the development of non-renewable resources and those that fund research on alternative energy)

C2.3 evaluate the impact of some key socio- economic trends on economic policy in different countries (e.g., trends related to income inequality, pensions, unemployment, aging populations in some countries, gender roles/relations, immigration, increasing public debt)

C2.4 assess some responses, or possible responses, to current economic issues, using cost/benefit analysis (e.g., the cost and benefits of carbon taxes, oil/gas pipelines, child labour, sweatshops, high housing costs, foreign debt relief)

C3. The Role of Government in Redressing Imbalance (FOCUS ON: Stability and Variability; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

C3.1 explain how economic factors influence the allocation by governments, both in Canada and internationally, of scarce resources to address social needs (e.g., access to education, health care, and housing; support services for disabled people, immigrants, poor people)

C3.2 explain programs and policies of governments in various countries designed to narrow income inequality (e.g., progressive income tax, child tax credits, micro loans, affirmative action, educational policies, employment insurance, social assistance), and assess their effectiveness

C3.3 explain the role and rights of workers as well as the role of governments, both in Canada and internationally, in shaping and enforcing these rights (e.g., with reference to collective bargaining rights, the Rand formula in Canada and labour legislation in other countries, minimum wages, maximum hours, health and safety legislation, regulations against discrimination and harassment, child labour laws)


By the end of this course, students will:

D1. Macroeconomic Models and Measures (FOCUS ON: Stability and Variability; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

D1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the business cycle model (e.g., recession, depression, peak, recovery, expansion) and various economic indicators (e.g., employment, gross domestic product, inflation)

D1.2 use an aggregate demand and aggregate supply model to analyze how government macroeconomic policies can be used to achieve economic aims (e.g., low inflation, stable growth, high levels of employment)

D1.3 explain how economists measure and represent standards of living and distribution of income (e.g., with reference to the Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, low-income cut-off, market basket measure)

D1.4 assess the strengths and weaknesses of various macroeconomic indicators (e.g., GDP, gross national income [GNI], consumer price index, unemployment rate)

D1.5 describe alternative measures and models of economic growth and well-being that are not based on the System of National Accounts (e.g., Human Development Index, Genuine Progress Indicator, happiness indicators, low-growth model), and assess their usefulness

D2. Fiscal Policy (FOCUS ON: Economic Significance; Cause and Effect)

By the end of this course, students will:

D2.1 assess the significance of factors that influence fiscal policy decisions in Canada (e.g., political business cycle; economic cycle; demands from stakeholders; poverty; responsibilities for health care, education, programs in Aboriginal communities, and other services; resource development/manage.ment; infrastructure needs)

D2.2 describe ways in which individuals and groups influence macroeconomic policies, and assess the effectiveness of their actions (e.g., with reference to voting, signing petitions, donating money to political parties or interest groups, raising awareness of issues through social media, writing elected representatives, lobbying, boycotts or buycotts, engaging in political protest)

D2.3 analyze how political and economic institu.tions (e.g., governments, Crown corporations, banks, industry) respond to economic change in Canada (e.g., moral suasion, public-private partnerships, regulation)

D2.4 explain how fiscal policies of governments in Canada influence the economic decisions of individuals and organizations, and analyze the macroeconomic consequences of some of these policies (e.g., with reference to changes to pension plans and/or employment insurance, changes in transfer payments to provinces, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation policy, eco fees, income and corporate tax rates, tariffs)

D3. Monetary Policy (FOCUS ON: Cause and Effect; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

D3.1 analyze the role of the Bank of Canada, with a particular emphasis on monetary policy (e.g., with reference to the money supply, interest rates, reserve ratio, exchange rates, its role in responding to economic challenges such as recession or inflation)

D3.2 analyze the form and function of money in Canada’s economy and how monetary policy affects the Canadian economy

D3.3 analyze the role of financial institutions in Canada (e.g., big banks, near banks, brokerage firms, credit unions)


By the end of this course, students will:

E1. Theories and Models of International Trade (FOCUS ON: Economic Significance; Stability and Variability)

By the end of this course, students will:

E1.1 demonstrate an understanding of key aspects of trade theories (e.g., absolute advantage, national comparative advantage, new trade theory) and explain how they are reflected in international trading practices

E1.2 demonstrate an understanding of exchange rate regimes (i.e., fixed, managed, and floating exchange rates) and how they influence the terms of trade

E1.3 assess trade models and practices (e.g., fair trade, free trade agreements, trade barriers, marketing boards) with reference to both economic and ethical criteria

E1.4 analyze the objectives and influence of a variety of trade agreements and political/economic organizations that focus on trade (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement, Free Trade Area of the Americas, World Trade Organization, G20, European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)

E2. International Economic Developments (FOCUS ON: Stability and Variability; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

E2.1 explain how globalization influences economic decisions of individuals, firms, and governments (e.g., with reference to closing manufacturing companies in North America and moving them to Asia, use of temporary foreign workers in Canada, relaxing of environmental and/or worker protections or lowering of corporate taxes to attract investment, availability of cheap consumer goods produced offshore, consumer backlash and the development of the buy-local movement)

E2.2 explain the significance of a variety of inter.national events/developments (e.g., natural disasters, war, terrorism, changes in governments, technological changes, increasing international debt) and policies (e.g., with respect to trade, the environment, energy, security) for the Canadian economy

E2.3 describe Canadian government responses to global economic challenges that affect stability (e.g., shifts in the global balance of power, global recession, reliance on oil from the Middle East or other unstable geopolitical areas, misuse of aid by corrupt regimes, increasing gap between rich and poor), and assess their effectiveness Sample questions: “What criteria were used by the federal and Ontario governments to justify bailing out auto manufacturers in 2009? What criteria would you have used? How would you evaluate the 2009 bailouts?”

E2.4 describe ways in which individuals and groups attempt to address problems related to international economic activities (e.g., child labour, environmental degradation, human rights violations, copyright violations, poor working conditions), and assess their effectiveness

E3. International Economic Power and Inequality (FOCUS ON: Cause and Effect; Economic Perspective)

By the end of this course, students will:

E3.1 analyze data on global economic disparities and explain the main causes and effects of economic marginalization (e.g., causes: illiteracy, gender inequality, colonial legacies, capitalism, lack of natural resources, private control or ownership of natural resources, lack of infrastructure, lack of access to markets in developed countries; effects: imbalance of power, high infant and maternal mortality rates, lower life expectancy, homelessness or substandard housing, lack of access to education and health care, hunger, social conflict)

E3.2 assess responses to economic disparity by various intergovernmental organizations (e.g., United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], United Nations Development Programme, World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund [IMF], World Bank)

E3.3 explain how various social movements and social justice organizations address global economic inequality, and assess their effectiveness (e.g., with reference to Make Poverty History, the International Labour Organization, the Third World Network; Occupy, antiglobalization, environmental, indigenous rights, seed-saving, fair-trade, feminist, anti–child labour movements)

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